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  1. Arizona State Supreme Court - April 1971
  2. U.S. District Court - Phoenix - May 1971
  3. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals - July 1972
  4. United States Supreme Court - April 1975
  5. Tribal Court of the White Mountain Apache Tribe - January 1981(not active)
  6. United States Claims Court - October 1981
  7. United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit - February 1983
  1. Indian Law Section, State Bar of Arizona.
  2. Environmental & Natural Resource Law Section - State Bar of Arizona.
Career Highlights:
  1. United States v. White Mountain Apache Tribe, 537 U.S. 465 (2003)
  2. Baker Hardin v. White Mountain Apache Tribe, 779 F. 2d 476 ( 9th Cir., 1985)
  3. Industrial Commission of the State of Arizona v. White Mountain Apache Tribe,


Representation of Tribes in Federal, State, and Tribal Courts, including the United States District Court for District of Arizona, Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, United States Claims Court, Federal Circuit Court of Appeals, and the United States Supreme Court.

Litigation and legal representation on issues involving Tribal sovereignty, education, Tribal self-government, Federal/Tribal relations, Tribal court jurisdiction, Tribal hunting and fishing rights, forestry and land use, leases, Indian reserved water rights, Tribal/State taxation issues and tax immunity, mismanagement and breach of trust claims against the Federal Government.

Drafted Tribal civil and criminal codes, ordinances, resolutions, advisor to Tribal Council and Tribal departments; prepared Tribal testimony before Congressional and State Legislative Committees, prepared intergovernmental agreements; construction litigation, contract disputes, represented Tribal enterprises, e.g. saw mill, ski area, construction and materials company, agriculture, livestock, gravel operations, commercial center, gaming casino; negotiated realty leases and transactions, joint ventures, extensive familiarity with land use and leasing regulations, Indian Child Welfare Act, Indian Self Determination Act, Indian Tax Status Act, business agreements and tax exempt bond issues; represented Tribe in administrative appeals before IBIA and IBCA, employee termination and grievance rights, application of HUD regulations and housing projects, collection issues involving surety law and bonds; involved in application of Environmental Protection Act and Endangered Species Act to Tribes, Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and Indian Forest Resource Management Act application. Foregoing list is not exhaustive of experience but illustrative.